Ceph Storage Best Practices for Ultimate Performance in Proxmox VE

Learn the best practices for setting up Ceph storage clusters within Proxmox VE and optimize your storage solution.


  • In this post, we will look at Ceph storage best practices for Ceph storage clusters and look at insights from Proxmox VE Ceph configurations with a Ceph storage pool and benefit of various configurations.
  • It is always better to set the expectations and plan at the beginning instead of implementing storage in a non-best practice way and expect it to perform.
  • The Ceph File System (CephFS) is a POSIX-compliant file system that uses the underlying storage provided by the Ceph cluster to provide for storing files.

Ceph is a scalable storage solution that is free and open-source. It is a great storage solution when integrated within Proxmox Virtual Environment (VE) clusters that provides reliable and scalable storage for virtual machines, containers, etc. In this post, we will look at Ceph storage best practices for Ceph storage clusters and look at insights from Proxmox VE Ceph configurations with a Ceph storage pool and benefit of various configurations.

What is Ceph and how does it work?

Ceph storage is an open source object storage solution that provides high availability and resilience. It can be the backing technology for traditional VM workloads and containers or it can be used for modernized solutions like Kubernetes, OpenStack, etc. Note the following components that make up the Ceph cluster:

  • Ceph stores data objects as object storage using local storage devices architecture on the host in the storage backend
  • Ceph Object Storage Daemons (OSDs) service that store data on Ceph volumes in the object store
  • Ceph Monitors (MONs or ceph-mon) that keep track of the cluster’s state, usage, mode, class, controllers, and other details
  • Ceph Managers (MGRs) that provide additional cluster insights
  • Can be used with commodity hardware in the datacenter
  • Can provide the Ceph filesystem for storing file shares, etc
  • It is a type of storage that can provide default storage for Kubernetes, Openstack, etc
  • Takes advantage of CPU, amount of RAM (memory), and network resources
  • Multiple releases available for use with different Linux distros (Quincy, Reef, etc)
  • It is free, so you can’t be the price when you contrast it with other HCI storage solutions in other systems

Read my post here on how to configure Ceph in Proxmox VE: Mastering Ceph Storage Configuration in Proxmox 8 Cluster.

Ceph storage
Ceph storage

What is the Ceph File System?

The Ceph File System (CephFS) is a POSIX-compliant file system that uses the underlying storage provided by the Ceph cluster to provide for storing files. On the flip side, Ceph’s object storage, accessible through the Ceph Object Gateway, provides a RESTful API interface, and supports both S3 and Swift protocols. This makes it a great choice for scalable and flexible data storage solutions.

Read my post here on how to configure Ceph File System on Proxmox: CephFS Configuration in Proxmox Step-by-Step.

Ceph Storage Best Practices for deployment

Note the following best practices to consider before deployment of your Proxmox VE cluster running Ceph for your organization or home lab.These help to ensure the best performance for your applications. It is always better to set the expectations and plan at the beginning instead of implementing storage in a non-best practice way and expect it to perform.

1. Planning the Cluster

  • Ceph Storage Cluster Size: Shoot for a minimum of three Ceph monitors for production environments to ensure high availability and fault tolerance.
  • Network Configuration: Implement a dedicated network for Ceph cluster traffic to optimize performance and reduce latency. Utilizing separate networks for public and cluster traffic can significantly impact throughput.

2. Hardware Considerations

  • Storage Devices: Use Solid State Drives (SSDs) for Ceph monitors and managers for faster metadata operations. For OSDs, a mix of HDDs and SSDs can balance cost and performance, depending on your storage requirements.
  • Network Bandwidth: Ensure adequate bandwidth for both client and cluster networks. 10GbE or higher is recommended for large-scale deployments.

3. Configuration and Tuning

  • Erasure Coding vs. Replication: Choose erasure coding for storage efficiency in large, read-oriented clusters. For write-heavy scenarios, replication may offer better performance.
  • OSD Configuration: Tune the number of placement groups per OSD to balance performance and resource utilization. Monitor OSD performance and adjust as necessary.
  • Ceph File System (CephFS): When using Ceph as a file system, enable multiple active metadata servers (MDS) to distribute the metadata workload.

4. Maintenance and Monitoring

  • Regular Health Checks: Use ceph health command to monitor the cluster’s health. Address any warnings or errors promptly to prevent data loss.
  • Capacity Planning: Monitor storage utilization and plan for expansion well before reaching capacity limits. Ceph’s scalability allows for seamless addition of nodes and devices.
  • Backup and Disaster Recovery: Implement a robust backup strategy, including regular snapshots and offsite backups, to ensure data durability and recoverability.

5. Security Considerations

  • Access Controls: Use Ceph’s authentication modules to control access to the cluster. Regularly update and manage user keys and permissions.
  • Network Security: Implement firewalls and isolate the Ceph cluster network from untrusted networks to prevent unauthorized access.

Now, let’s dive into the more detailed look at various configurations with Ceph and the top things you need to consider.

Network bandwidth considerations

Software-defined storage lives and dies based on the performance of the underlying storage network. The cluster network provides the backbone client traffic to OSDs and inter-OSD replication traffic. 

For Ceph storage best practices, adequate network bandwidth helps to avoid performance bottlenecks and the inability to satisfy performance demands which is extremely important for hyper-converged setups with a lot of network traffic for storage traffic especially. 

Network bandwidth
Network bandwidth

In addition, for optimal performance, you will want to segregate client and recovery traffic across different network interfaces for best practice. Using high-bandwidth connections can significantly enhance throughput and you will notice a huge difference in performance.

For example, note the following:

  • 10 Gbit/s network can easily be overwhelmed, indicating the need for higher bandwidth for optimal performance.
  • 25 Gbit/s network can offer improvements but may require careful setup and configuration to avoid becoming a bottleneck.
  • 100 Gbit/s network significantly enhances performance, shifting the bottleneck towards the Ceph client and allowing for remarkable write and read speeds.

The cluster network is responsible for client traffic to OSDs and inter-OSD replication traffic. You want to have sufficient network bandwidth for preventing bottlenecks. Implementing a separate network for cluster and public traffic can significantly improve performance. 

For high-demand environments, 10 GbE networks may quickly become saturated; upgrading to 25 GbE or even 100 GbE networks can provide the necessary throughput for large-scale operations and operating system instances and image instructions.

Note the following different components of Ceph, Ceph configurations, and other important considerations to make for Ceph storage best practices.

Erasure Coding and Metadata Servers with Ceph storage

It provides an efficient way to ensure data durability while optimizing storage utilization. Erasure coding is done at the file level. File is cut into “K” data chunks and “M” parity chunks that are dispersed across unique hosts in your cluster.

Two common erasure coding configurations are 4+2 (66% storage efficiency) and 8+2 (80% storage efficiency). Equation, K value / K+M. Erasure coding disperses these chunks to multiple hosts.

Meanwhile, Ceph’s metadata servers (MDS) play a crucial role in the Ceph configuration in managing metadata for the Ceph File System. It enables scalable and high-performance file storage capabilities. Properly configuring MDSs can dramatically improve the performance of file-based operations.

Failure domains, replicated pools, CRUSH algorithm, and OSD management

failure domain is a way to define the boundaries within which data replication and distribution should be aware of potential failures. The idea is to ensure that copies of data (replicas or erasure-coded parts) are not all stored within the same failure domain, where a single failure could cause data loss or unavailability. Common failure domains include hosts, racks, and even data centers.

Types of failure domains include:

  • Hosts: A simple failure domain, where replicas are distributed across different physical or virtual servers. This protects against server failures.
  • Racks: To protect against rack-level problems like power outages or network issues, replicas can be spread across different racks within a data center.
  • Data Centers: For very high availability requirements, Ceph can distribute data across multiple data centers, ensuring that even a complete data center outage won’t lead to data loss.

Replicated pools are a core part of Ceph’s data durability mechanism, replicating data across multiple OSDs to safeguard against data loss. 

The CRUSH algorithm is responsible for the data placement in the cluster. It ensures data is evenly distributed and remains accessible even when a node or disk fails. Efficient management of OSDs, including monitoring their health and performance, is crucial for maintaining a robust Ceph cluster.

Ceph cluster map

The Ceph cluster map is a collection of essential data structures that provide a comprehensive overview of the Ceph storage cluster’s state, configuration, and topology. This map is vital for the operation of the Ceph cluster.

It enables all components within the cluster to understand the cluster’s layout, know where data should be placed or found, and efficiently route client requests to the appropriate locations. The cluster map is actually composed of several individual maps, each serving a specific purpose. Here’s how it comes into play:

Components of the Ceph Cluster Map

The Ceph cluster map is a collection of essential data structures that provides an overview of the Ceph storage cluster’s state, configuration, and topology. This map is a core part of the operation of the Ceph cluster as it enables all components within the cluster to understand the cluster’s layout.

Also, it helps to know where data should be placed or found, and efficiently route client requests to the appropriate locations. The cluster map is made up of several individual maps, each serving a specific purpose.

These include:

  1. Monitor Map (monmap): Contains information about the Ceph Monitor daemons in the cluster, including their identities, IP addresses, and ports. This map is crucial for the monitors to form a quorum, which is essential for cluster consensus and state management.
  2. OSD Map (osdmap): Provides a detailed layout of all Object Storage Daemons (OSDs) in the cluster, their statuses (up or down), and their weights. This map is crucial for data distribution and replication, as it enables the CRUSH algorithm to make intelligent placement decisions.
  3. CRUSH Map: Describes the cluster’s topology, including the hierarchy of failure domains (e.g., racks, rows, data centers) and the rules for placing data replicas or erasure-coded chunks. This map is fundamental to ensuring data durability and availability by spreading data across different failure domains.
  4. PG Map (pgmap): Contains information about the placement groups (PGs) in the cluster, including their states, the OSDs they are mapped to, and statistics about I/O operations and data movement. This map is essential for managing data distribution and for rebalancing and recovery operations.
  5. MDA Map (mdsmap): Relevant for Ceph clusters that use the Ceph File System (CephFS), this map contains information about the Metadata Server (MDS) daemons, including their states and the file system namespace they manage.

Block Storage and Data Replication

Ceph’s block storage, through RADOS Block Devices (RBDs), offers highly performant and reliable storage options for VM disks in Proxmox VE. Configuring block storage with appropriate replication levels ensures data availability and performance. 

Additionally, tuning the replication strategy to match your storage requirements and network capabilities can further enhance data protection and accessibility.

Key Findings from benchmarking Proxmox VE Ceph

Proxmox documentation notes findings in an official benchmark run using Proxmox VE and a Ceph storage configuration. You can download the latest Proxmox VE benchmarking documentation here: Download Proxmox software, datasheets, agreements

Proxmox used the following command for the benchmark:

fio --ioengine=libaio --filename=/dev/nvme5n1 --direct=1 --sync=1 --rw=write --bs=4k --numjobs=1 --iodepth=1 --runtime=60 --time_based --name=fio

fio --ioengine=libaio --filename=/dev/nvme5n1 --direct=1 --sync=1 --rw=write --bs=4M --numjobs=1 --iodepth=1 --runtime=60 --time_based --name=fio 

rados -p bench-pool bench 300 write -b 4M -t 16 --no-cleanup -f plain --run-name bench_4m rados -p bench-pool bench 300 seq -t 16 --no-cleanup -f plain --run-name bench_4m 

The findings from the benchmark include the following:

Network results

  1. Network Saturation: A 10 Gbit/s network can quickly become a bottleneck, even with a single fast SSD, highlighting the need for a network with higher bandwidth.
  2. 25 Gbit/s Network Limitations: While improvements can be achieved through configuration changes, a 25 Gbit/s network can also become a bottleneck. The use of routing via FRR is preferred for a full-mesh cluster over Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP).
  3. Shifting Bottleneck with 100 Gbit/s Network: With a 100 Gbit/s network, the performance bottleneck moves from hardware to the Ceph client and other system resources, showcasing impressive write and read speeds for single and multiple clients.

A Ceph full mesh setup refers to a network configuration within a Ceph storage cluster where each node is directly connected to every other node. This design is aimed at optimizing the communication and data transfer paths between the nodes, which can include Ceph OSDs (Object Storage Daemons), Monitors, and Managers, among others. The primary goal of a full mesh topology in a Ceph context is to enhance redundancy, fault tolerance, and performance.

A full mesh setup has the following characteristics:

  • High Redundancy: By connecting each node directly to all others, the network ensures that there are multiple paths for data to travel. This redundancy helps in maintaining cluster availability even if some nodes or connections fail.
  • Improved Performance: A full mesh network can reduce the number of hops data must travel between nodes, potentially lowering latency and increasing throughput.
  • Scalability Challenges: While offering significant advantages, a full mesh topology can become complex and challenging to manage as the cluster scales. The number of connections grows quadratically with the addition of each node, leading to increased network complexity.

Hardware Considerations

Selecting the right hardware is crucial for achieving the best performance. Using fast SSDs and multiple NICs have the potential for significant performance gains with the appropriate hardware setup. Ceph performance will depend largely on fast storage and the right network bandwidth.

Storage and OSD Configuration

There is a relationship between the number of OSDs (Object Storage Daemons) and placement groups (PGs). It recommends configurations that balance performance with the ability to recover from failures, especially in smaller clusters.

The Ceph OSD daemon (Object Storage Daemon) is responsible for storing data on behalf of Ceph clients. They also handle data replication, recovery, rebalancing. Ceph OSD daemons also provide information to the Ceph monitor and managers about the state of the Ceph storage cluster. 

Storage servers
Storage servers

Each OSD daemon is associated with a specific storage device (e.g., a hard drive or solid-state drive) in the Ceph cluster. The OSDs collectively provide the distributed storage capability that allows Ceph to scale out and handle large amounts of data across many machines.

Practical Recommendations

Several practical recommendations can be made for deploying Ceph with Proxmox VE:

  • Network Planning: Use high-bandwidth networks and consider full-mesh configurations with routing via FRR for larger setups. Also, the configuration of failure domains should take into account the network topology to avoid potential bottlenecks or latency issues during data replication and recovery. 
  • Hardware Selection: Invest in fast SSDs and ensure the network infrastructure can support the desired performance levels. For production, don’t use consumer SSDs.
  • OSD and PG Configuration: Optimize the number of OSDs per node and PGs based on the cluster size and performance goals.
  • Capacity Planning: When configuring failure domains, it’s crucial to ensure that there’s sufficient capacity across the domains to handle failures without compromising data availability or cluster performance.
  • Monitoring and Maintenance: Effective monitoring tools and practices are essential to quickly identify and address failures within any domain, minimizing the impact on the cluster, and storage optimization.

Several interesting questions arise regarding Ceph storage best practices. Note important questions in the sections below.

Key questions about Ceph and Proxmox

How Many OSDs do you need per node?

Choosing the optimal number of Object Storage Daemons (OSDs) per node significantly impacts both performance and resilience. As a rule of thumb, deploying at least one OSD per node is the bare minimum. The reason for this is it helps ensure data redundancy and cluster health. 

However, for enhanced performance and data durability, especially in smaller clusters, aiming for four or more OSDs per node is recommended. This configuration aids in better data distribution and recovery processes. It also helps ensure a balanced load and efficient utilization of resources across the cluster.

What about Cluster Nodes and Performance?

When planning the scale of your Ceph cluster the more nodes you have, the more resilient and performant your Ceph cluster will be. You should consider a three-node cluster to be the minimum viable configuration to maintain Ceph’s redundancy and failover capabilities. 

When you add more nodes to the cluster, it adds to the cluster’s fault tolerance and load distribution. More nodes mean more paths for data replication and recovery. This leads to improved performance and reliability. 

The number of nodes should be aligned with your storage capacity needs and performance goals, always keeping in mind the balance between cost and operational complexity.

What about SSD vs. HDD and NVMe?

The choice between solid-state drives (SSDs) and hard disk drives (HDDs) for your OSDs is important. SSDs offer superior performance, especially for workloads requiring high I/O operations per second (IOPS) and low latency. 

Ssds vs hdds
Ssds vs hdds

HDDs, while they can be more cost-effective and provide larger storage capacities, don’t perform as well. For a balanced approach, consider using SSDs for Ceph Monitors and OSD journals or databases to enhance performance. Then you can use HDDs for bulk storage where high throughput is less critical.

NVMe storage is even faster than traditional SSDs. Using NVMe storage can provide some of the fastest storage available on the market today for most use cases and deployments and can be considered for use in the same way as SSDs.

What about the difference between erasure coding vs replication?

Ceph offers two primary data protection mechanisms: erasure coding and replication. Erasure coding is an efficient way to protect data against disk or node failures, especially for cold or less frequently accessed data, as it requires less storage space than replication. 

Storage server hard drives
Storage server hard drives

Replication, on the other hand, provides high availability and quick access to data. It is ideal for hot data that requires fast reads and writes. Balancing these features according to your specific use case and storage efficiency requirements is key to optimize your performance and resilience against failures.

What about recovery and rebalancing?

When a failure occurs within a defined failure domain (e.g., a server goes down), Ceph automatically starts a recovery process to replicate the affected data onto other nodes outside the failure domain. This process ensures that the desired level of data redundancy is maintained. Ceph also rebalances data across the cluster to optimize performance and storage utilization, considering the configured failure domains.

You can check the balancer status on your cluster using the following commands:

ceph balancer status
ceph balancer on
ceph balancer off

##default mode is unmap, you can change using
ceph balancer mode crush-compat
ceph balancer mode read
ceph balancer mode unmap-read

##To evaluate
ceph balancer eval
##To optimize
ceph balancer optimize

Can you use different types of disks?

Yes you can. However, cluster performance will be much harder to predict or understand and the slower disks will limit the performance of the cluster.

Can you use different disk sizes?

Yes you can use different disk sizes, but it is definitely not recommended. It will result in unbalanced data distribution between the cluster nodes.

Can you use consumer SSDs in your Proxmox Ceph cluster?

It is never recommended to use consumer SSDs for production clusters. For home lab, yes, you can get away with this with the understanding that consumer disks are not meant to provide the durability and MTF of enterprise disks.

Should you run the latest version of Ceph and Proxmox?

Ideally yes. The latest release of each solution will have bug fixes and other improvements in the app, code, and kernel patches that will help squeeze out the last bit of performance for users.

Make sure to backup your data

No matter how resilient a file system, storage technology, or resiliency scheme is following Ceph storage best practices, you need to always have a means for disaster recovery. Data backup provides a solution that allows you to totally recreate your data and other details in the event it is lost due to any number of things. It is essentially a separate copy of your production data. 

Most modern backup solutions take a base full backup and then take incremental snapshots of your data to reduce backup times and data storage.

The need for data recovery includes hardware failure, ransomware (or other security incident), user error/development mishap, or anything else. They are required by many compliance regulations along with encryption and other data best practices.

Data backup and recovery
Data backup and recovery

Wrapping up Ceph storage best practices

As we have seen throughout this post, there are a lot of Ceph storage best practices and things you should note for achieving the ultimate performance and scalability for your Ceph storage cluster. The network is extremely important. Obviously, the faster the network, the faster your storage will be.

10 gig networking should be a bare minimum with Ceph HCI clusters. 25 gig is better and 100 gig will essentially move the bottleneck to other components like the Ceph monitors, etc.

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Brandon Lee

Brandon Lee is the Senior Writer, Engineer and owner at and has over two decades of experience in Information Technology. Having worked for numerous Fortune 500 companies as well as in various industries, He has extensive experience in various IT segments and is a strong advocate for open source technologies. Brandon holds many industry certifications, loves the outdoors and spending time with family. Also, he goes through the effort of testing and troubleshooting issues, so you don't have to.

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